Evaporation Equipment

What is Evaporation?

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that encompasses the phase transition of a liquid to a gas at a temperature below boiling. Although that definition is a little complex most people are familar with Evaporation and the essential role it plays in the “water cycle” of our planet. The Sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, rivers, soil, etc..  into the atmosphere where it forms clouds eventually cools and falls back to earth in the form of rain.

Factors Affecting Evaporation

There are several things to consider that directly impact the amount you can evaporate and how efficiently you can do it. These factors not only limit the volumes you can evaporate but also impact the design and operational costs of a system. They are as follows:

Air Temperature

Air temperature is the single largest factor in determining the limits and efficiency of any given evaporation process. This is because air or any gas for that matter can hold a finite amount of moisture. This top end limit is called the saturation pressure point of air. However the saturation pressure point changes as the temperature changes. The colder it gets the lower the saturation pressure point. Which is why temperature has such a big impact on the amount you can evaporate in a given space. For example  at 100° F (38° C) the capacity of 1000 cubic feet of dry air is 10 times the capacity at 30° F (~0° C). It’s also why your dryer has a hot setting.

So what is the take away? That increasing the flow or the amount of moisture atomized or put into the air has no impact on the amount of moisture that is actually evaporated and as you will learn later actually can decrease the amount evaporated. It also means the only way to increase evaporation volumes without increasing temperature is to is to spread the moisture over a larger area. This means scalability is more important that flow rate.

Humidity

As we stated earlier there is a limit to the amount of humidity or water vapor a set volume of air can hold at any given time. This is called the maximum saturation pressure.  The maximum saturation pressure rises or declines as the air temperature rises or declines. Evaporation is concerned with two types of measurements commonly used when talking about humidity: Absolute Humidity and Relative Humidity.  Absolute Humidity is simply a measurement of the water vapor in the air already, while Relative Humidity is expressed as a percentage and measures the absolute humidity relative to the maximum saturation pressure of water vapor in the air for a specific temperature and barometric pressure.

A simple analogy to help visualize the difference between the two measurements is to imagine a glass of water. Absolute humidity would be the amount of water in the glass while relative humidity would be the percentage of water in the glass compared to it being completely full.

This means that the relative humidity at a particular location or time of the day has a direct impact on the amount material you can evaporate. For example a cubic meter of air at 30 degrees C (86°F) can hold maximum 30 grams of water, but if the relative humidity is 80% then the maximum amount of moisture you can evaporate in a cubic meter of air at 30 degrees C (86°F) is 6 grams. A huge difference. This reenforces the fact that the one of the best ways to really increase the volume being evaporated is to spread the atomization over a larger area. Once again scalability is more important then flow rate.

Wind Speed
Wind speed is most commonly measured in miles per hour, kilometers per hour and sometimes meters per second. These measurements are important when we look at evaporation because we know we can have a finite amount of moisture in a cubic meter of air at a specific temperature and barometric pressure. However, if the air is flowing at a certain speed the volume of space your evaporating in refreshes with new air at a rate directly related to the wind speed (flow of air). To give some perspective on this if you had a cubic meter of airspace and were to push a 3 mile per hour wind through that space you would have at the end of 1 hour filled that space with new air 4828 times (4,828 cubic meters per hour) or flow rate of 1.34 meters per second. this means that space was filling up with new air in little under 1 second. So theoretically its possible evaporate a little over 30 grams of water every second as long as the relative humidity was 0% and the Temperature was at a constant 30°C (86°F). This converts to about 144,840 grams of water per hour or 38 gallons per hour).

Obviously this means that the amount of moisture you can evaporate is also closely tied to wind speed with the general rule being the faster the wind speed the more you can evaporate. However, if the design of the system is well thought out one can increase the amount you evaporate exponentially by increasing the area/space in which the system is atomizing.

For example if we increase the area used in the example above to 10 cubic meters at the same 3mph wind speed. It would result in moving 482,803 cubic meters of air through a 10 cubic meter space in one hour. If we use 30 grams of water per cubic meter as our base line we can evaporate a maximum of 14,484,090 grams of water in one hour or about 3,826 gallons per hour. That is a big jump in volume by just spreading out the atomizing.

It’s important to note that 0% humidity is virtually impossible and at an average humidity of about 70% the top end limit to the amount of moisture you could evaporate would be significantly less.

Vapor Density/Particle Size
Vapor density and particle size are extremely important when trying to develop the most efficient evaporation system. The laws of physics dictate that water can only evaporates from the surface area of a body of water. This includes atomized droplets or even surfaces of lake. This process takes a measurable amount of time and results in the cooling of the air as the water turns to vapor.

This transference of energy or change in temperature has a huge impact on how much water can be evaporated. If the air is cooling every time a tiny amount of water is vaporized the air temperature around the atomized particles will go down which will result in less and less water turning into vapor.

So when designing an optimal system it is important to make the particles small enough they have time to evaporate moisture from the surface area of the droplet before they reach the ground AND have enough space between the atomized droplets that the surrounding temperature doesn’t drop so quickly that it lowers the amount of moisture that can be evaporated. Which is why a snow machine or dust control misting unit us less then ideal for evaporation.

Leveraging the Evaporation Process

People have been using the evaporation process to his/her advantage for most of recorded history. Basic table salt has been created the same way for thousands of years by leveraging simple evaporation principles. In todays society evaporation is used  in part to cool your home, purify water, manufacture food products, and hundreds of other uses each and every day… It is used by the energy industry to evaporate drilling muds and most recently is being used in the waste industry to evaporate leachate.

The relatively new trend of evaporating leachate is becoming more common place because the cost of hauling thousands of gallons of the material off site to be processed at a waste water treatment plant is an expensive proposition. If this cost can be avoided by using a clean and inexpensive natural process then it’s a no brainer business decision to do so. Evaporation systems can potentially save landfills millions of dollars annually. Until recently the waste industry has had to use a hodgepodge of technologies ill suited for evaporation, making it expensive, dirty and inefficient. Engineering firms began designing systems that would leverage the gases produced by the landfill and essentially boil the leachate and charge a fee in the range of about 10 cents a gallon for the service, a step in the right direction and cheaper then a waste water treatment facility but still a significant cost. New Waste Concepts has changed all that with the introduction of the Typhoon Series of Evaporation Misting Head.

Why New Waste Concepts?

The answer is simple: NWC designs its systems specifically for evaporation AND they have over 30 years experience in the waste and energy industry. We don’t take misting, snow making or aeration technology and try to pass it off as an evaporation system. These systems have very little control over the material being misted and when dealing with substances like leachate you need to be able to control where and how far its traveling. Our system is specifically designed to effectively maximize the amount of moisture evaporated while taking into consideration all the factors that affect the evaporation process. In addition we offer very tight control over the actual mist to allow you control the distance it travels. This is the only system that allows you to have that kind of control. It is our opinion that this is the only way to create an evaporation system that is scalable,  efficient, cost effective and safe.

Developing an Effective Evaporation System

NWC first evaporation system was developed specifically to evaporate the moisture out of the muds used by drilling rigs. The video on the right hand side of this page demonstrates how thick of a substance can pass through our system and be evaporated. It’s one of the unique abilities of our system that separates us from a fixed nozzle system. Trying to evaporate a thick viscous material through a fixed nozzle is a recipe for disaster so our team had to develop a system that took into consideration the factors affecting evaporation PLUS how to handle thick viscous materials. After 100’s of hours of testing and development with our partner company it was obvious that the misting basket technology was clearly the best choice.

The misting basket uses centrifugal force to force water/moisture through a screen spinning at a very high rpm. The result was our Typhoon Saturation Head. The most important advantage is control

The Most Important Factor: Control

The only way to have control over an atomized mist is to control the size of the particles or the flow of moisture out of it. Controlling the particle size allows you to control how far a particle travels and how long it takes to hit the ground. In a fixed nozzle system the only way to control particle size is to switch out nozzles and due to the nature of fixed nozzles you still get a large variety in particle sizes (see next section about bell curves).

Misting Basket technology controls the particle size two ways:

  • Misting Basket Head Size – The misting basket comes in a 6″ and 12″ Head. The 6″ head would be used in situations where you want extremely low travel distance because it creates much larger particles. The larger 12″ head and more common for misting produces a finer mist which travels further.
  • Flow rate of Moisture – You can fine tune the particle size with a misting basket by adjusting the flow rate of moisture to the basket. This allows you to dial in a very precise micron size for your particles. Lowering the flow rate of the moisture to the misting basket will make the particle size get smaller thus increasing the distance the particle s travel. To increase particle size you increase the flow to the basket and the larger particles fall faster and do not travel as far. It’s that easy. ( SEE IMAGE ABOVE)

Precise Control Over Particle Size: Narrow Bell Curve

Misting Baskets offer unheard of precision in the size of the particle you wish to produce but they also offer another advantage over fixed nozzle systems. Misting Baskets by design concentrate a larger portion of the total moisture they expel in a precise size. This results in a much narrower band in which the moisture is released. Upward of 90% is released in a 30 micron band. If you were to graph it, it would look like a very narrow bell curve. Meaning a high percentage of the moisture is the size you want and very little is the size you don’t want.
Fixed Nozzle systems unfortunately have a very wide bell curve. The particles they emit (SEE IMAGE ABOVE) are pretty evenly split between 20 microns to 150 microns. This means that if your trying to limit the distance the particles travel due to composition or safety reasons you have a problem. Why? Because a good percentage of those particles are small enough to travel a lot further then intended.
Misting basket technology has a very narrow bell curve so most of the moisture atomized is in a very small range in size ensuring that the particles are traveling exactly how far you want them too.. Safe and efficient.

To really see how much of an impact particle size has check out the chart below to see how far various particle sizes travel based on their size and wind conditions

Particle Size (microns)

Comparative Size

Time to fall 10 ft. (seconds)

Drift in 3 MPH Wind (feet)

Number of Droplets in One gallon

10Wet Fog1,0204,5007.23 Trillion
40Wet Fog64280113 Billion
50Misty Rain4017557.8 Billion
100Misty Rain11487.23 Billion
200Light Rain4.219903 Million
400Light Rain1.98113 Million
500Moderate Rain0.9756.5 Million
1000Moderate Rain0.8556.3 Million

Need Help Choosing One?

If your interested in Learning more about NWC’s Typhoon Series Evaporation Equipment and want find out which delivery system is best suited for your operation please contact one of our sales engineers by clicking the link below and we will get back to you ASAP.

Contact a Sales Engineer - Evaporation Equipment

Lily Pad (Video)

The Typhoon Lily Pad is a Floating evaporation system designed to sit in the center of a leachate pond and contains 4 completely independent head/units.

Typhoon Evaporation (Video)

Misting Basket technology has been used in a lot of different applications but one application that really has some impact in demonstrating the difference between the Typhoon technology and a fixed nozzle is evaporating Mud. Check it out!!

NWC Lease Program

NWC offers its clients the option of leasing equipment. These leases are ideal for short and long term projects where you will have no need for the machine once the project has completed. NWC’s fleet of CAPS Machines are leased on a monthly basis ideal for remediation and seeding projects.  If your interested in finding out more about the CAPS Lease Program give us a call or click the link below.

Equipment Lease Request - Evaporation Equipment

Typhoon LINK (fixed platform)

The Typhoon LINK is a fixed position evaporation system designed to sit around the sides of a leachate pond or other body of water. They can be placed a fixed distance away from each other to evaporate high volumes of water at a very low operational cost.

Advantages of the Misting Basket Technology

  • Clog Free Design – NWC’s basket technology is designed to handle thick viscous materials unlike fixed nozzle systems which clog oftend a require significant amount of maintenance
  • Extreme Durability – In order to evaporate large amounts of moisture systems need to run often continuously for hundreds of hours. NWC’s sealed electric and hydraulic motors have been known to run in the tens of thousands of hours before needing any rebuilding
  • Particle Spacing – Because of the energy transfer/temperature change that occurs when water vaporizes its important to keep the spacing between particles large enough so the air temperature does not drop enough to significantly. Tightly packed particles would reduce the amount of water you can vaporize. The Typhoon’s basket technology forces a wider and less dense spread of moisture then a fixed nozzle system.
  • Largest Possible Footprint – NWC’s basket technology uses centrifugal force to throw moisture in all directions thus increasing the footprint/area that moisture can evaporate in. It increases efficiency and volumes that can be evaporated from a single unity
  • Cost Effective Scalability – Unlike fixed nozzle systems that push more moisture through the same volume of space which results in a barely perceptible increase in the volumes evaporated. NWC’s systems is scalable by adding additional units which can be placed in multiple locations adding  more area you can evaporate over thus scaling linearly the volumes of moisture you can evaporate.

How do we power it?

The next step was to find an efficient and reliable way to power it. After 1000’s of hours of testing we settled on two basic designs. The first a hydraulic driven unit with a motor capable of spinning the basket upwards of 5000 rpm’s for extremely heavy flow or larger splatter patterns. The Second design was a powered by standard electric drive motor that spun the misting basket at a little over 3500 rpm’s. By going with Two designs we can offer our clients a system optimized for their particular situation/use.

Which System is right for me?

That really depends on what your evaporating and the layout of the area your planning on using to evaporate. NWC has develops a variety of systems using the Typhoon Saturation Head. We have fixed systems that are spaced evenly apart from each other. We have mobile units that can be moved to different locations based on need and we have a floating system that sits in the middle of your pond. It really depends on your circumstances.

We have developed and built custom systems for many of our clients and if you have a specific need that one of our current machines can not meet we can build one. For a more detailed explanation on our misting systems we recommend speaking with one our our misting experts.

Evaporation Equipment List